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March 9, 2016

FIRST OPEN NOMINATION FOR THE
NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY OF

Professor Ruggero Maria Santilli
Office Tel. +1-727-940-3944, mobile +1-727-688-3992,
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for the discovery of the new chemical species of magnecules

submitted to:

2016 Nobel Committee for Chemistry: Prof. Sara Snogerup Linse (Chairman),
Prof. Peter Brzezinski, Prof. Claes Gustafsson, Prof. Olof Ramstršm,
Prof. Johan Aqvist, and Prof. Gunnar von Heijne (Secretary)

via registered mail at
P.O. Box 5232, SE-102 45 Stockholm, Sweden
Street address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm
via fax at +46 (0)8 660 38 47
and via email

THE NOMINEE.
I hereby nominate for the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry the Italian-American scientist Prof. Ruggero Maria Santilli, formerly from MIT, Harvard University, and other leading institutions, who is the author of about 250 post Ph. D. papers and 18 monographs published by refereed journals and leading publishers around the world (see the curriculum http://www.world-lecture-series.org/santilli-cv and the scientific archive http://www.santilli-foundation.org/news.html and the historical archive http://www.i-b-r.org/ir00022.htm); the founder and editor in chief of the 37 year old Hadronic Journal, Algebras, Groups and Geometries, and other post Ph. D. scientific journals (http://www.hadronicpress.com); the founder and President of the 35 year old Institute for Basic Research (http://www.i-b-r.org); a speaker or a keynote speaker at numerous international scientific meetings over fifty years of research (http://www.world-lecture-series.org/); the recipient of numerous scientific prizes (http://www.santilli-foundation.org/santilli-nobel-nominations.html); the founder and Chief Scientist of the U. S. publicly traded company Magnegas Corporation (http://www.magnegas.com); the founder and Chief Scientist of the U. S. publicly traded company Thunder Energies Corporation (http://www.thunder-energies.com); and the originator of additional scientific and industrial activity.

DISCOVERY OF THE NEW CHEMICAL SPECIES OF MAGNECULES.

Prof. Santilli is nominated for decades of mathematical, theoretical and experimental research that lead to discovery of the new chemical species today known as Santilli Magnecules, consisting of individual atoms, (such as H, O, etc.), dimers (such as OH, CH, etc.) and ordinary molecules (such as H2, H2O, etc.) bonded together by the attractive force of predominant magnetic character between opposing polarities of toroidal polarizations induced in the orbits of peripheral atomic electrons via a new technology known as Santilli PlasmaArcFlow.

FIGURE 1

Creation Magnecules

A conceptual rendering of the toroidal polarization of the orbits of peripheral atomic electrons and their alignment with opposite induced polarization permitted by the magnetic field of a sufficiently powerful electric arc [1,2].

Santilli first presented the mathematical, theoretical and experimental aspects of the discovery of magnecules in memoir [1] of 1998. The theoretical existence of Santilli magnecules was confirmed by M. G. Kucherenko and A. K. Aringazin in paper [2] of the same year that provided the numerical estimate of the attractive force between two toroidal polarizations of electron orbits. A comprehensive presentation of the discovery was made by Santilli in his monograph [3] of 2001. Among a number of early independent studies, we mention reviews [4,5], the works by M. O. Cloonan [6], the comprehensive experimental verification on the existence of Santilli magnecules by Y. Yang, J. V. Kadeisvili, and S. Marton [7], and references quoted therein. Additional contributions in the field are given by Refs. [8-29].

It should be indicated that, as clarified by Santilli in monograph [3], the theoretical prediction and elaboration of the new species of magnecules can be entirely done via the use of the conventional quantum chemistry, with particular reference to quantum electrodynamics. This is due to the fact that the toroidal polarization of the orbits of peripheral atomic electrons is a clear quantum electrodynamics problem.

SCIENTIFIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS.
In the early 1980s, Santilli was at Harvard University under support from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE contracts ER-78-S-02-47420.A000, AS02-78ER04742, DE-AC02-80ER1065, DE-AC02-80ER-1065.A001, and DE-AC02-80ER.1065) to initiate studies on American Fuels, intended as clean burning fuels that can be synthesized from U. S. feedstocks.

To achieve such a task, Santilli noted that the primary reason for the release of contaminants by fossil fuel combustion is the strong value of their covalence bond that, as such, solely allows a partial combustion, thus implying the presence in the combustion exhaust of significant percentages of combustible contaminants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), et al.

To fulfill his duties under DOE support, Santilli initiated the study of a new chemical species that, by central assumptions, had to be stable as at ambient temperatures, but its bond had to be weaker than the covalence bond as a necessary condition to achieve full combustion, intended as a combustion without combustible contaminants in the exhaust so as to achieve environmentally axeptance.

Following various trials and errors, Santilli decided to base the new chemical species on magnetic bonds because they are notoriously weaker than covalence bonds and they disappear at the combustion temperature, thus allowing the combustion directly for atomic constituents, rather than molecular constituents, as it is the case for fossil fuels.

Santilli knew that most molecules, such as the hydrogen molecule H2 = H-H (where the symbol "-" denotes covalence bond), are diamagnetic, thus having no usable magnetic moment. Therefore, he decided to create the magnetic moment needed for the new bond at the level of individual atoms, thus bypassing the issue as to whether a given molecule is diamagnetic or paramagnetic.

Santilli also knew that the polarization of electron orbits requires very big magnetic fields estimated to be of the order of 1012 G or more [3,8]. Therefore, he decided to use electric arcs for the achievement of the needed polarization because electric arcs can indeed achieve the needed large values of magnetic fields. of course, at atomic distances as well as under sufficient currents. This lead to the development of new reactors for the creation of the new chemical species of magnecules, resulting in a patented new technology today known as Santilli PlasmaArcFlow Technology [9].

FIGURE 2

Figure 2

An illustration of a biatomic, thus simplest possible Santilli magnecule at absolute zero degree temperature. Rotations due to temperature apply to the magnecule as a whole that remains stable until its Curie temperature [1,2].

Following years of tests, Santilli founded in 2007 the U. S. public company Magnegas Corporation (whose stock is traded at NASDAQ under the symbol MNGA [10]) for the industrial production and sale of new fuels with magnecular structure as described in monograph [11], with particular reference to various forms of magnegas, intended as combustible gases produced via the gasification of liquids or liquid wastes via their flowing through submerged electric arcs between carbon electrodes.

When produced from the gasification of distilled water via graphite electrodes, the atomic composition of magnegas is given by about 50% hydrogen, 25% oxygen and 25% carbon. By denoting the new magnecular bond with the symbol ×, the chemical composition of magnegas is given by clusters comprising: individual H, O and C atoms; their conventional dimers C-H and O-H and their magnecular counterparts C×H, O×H; conventional molecules H-H, C-O, etc. and their magnecular counterparts H×H, C×H, etc.; and a variety of new species such as H-H×H, O-O×O, H-H×H-H, O-O&timesO-O, and others; under magnecular bonds.

The superior environmental quality of Santilli magnegas over conventional fuels is established beyond doubt by the fact that, according to numerous chemical analysis, magnegas combustion exhaust contains "no" detectable C-O AND NO appreciable hydrocarbons [12] in the absence of catalytic converters, with evident environmental advantages, particularly in view of the current alarming increase of environmental problems.

The chemical novelty of magnegas is established also beyond doubt by the fact that, according to measurements conducted by the Institute of Ultrafast Spectroscopy of the City College of New York [13,14], magnegas flame temperature is 6,132o C, namely, about double the hydrogen flame temperature, even though magnegas synthesized from distilled water contains about 50% hydrogen.

Santilli has shown that magnegas anomalous flame temperature cannot be explained quantitatively by assuming that magnegas is solely composed by ordinary molecules, but it can be quantitatively represented by assuming that magnegas contains the magnecular species H×H because of the availability at combustion of individual hydrogen atoms, rather than molecules.

An additional anomaly is that, according to conventional chemical analyses, magnegas should have 320 BTU per cubic feet, while magnegas cuts metals much faster than acetylene that has 1,470 BTU per cubic feet [15]. Again, Santilli has shown [11] that the rapidity of metal cutting via magnegas compared to that of acetylene cannot be quantitatively explained by assuming that magnegas has a conventional molecular structure, but can indeed be quantitatively represented by assuming that magnegas has the magnecular structure indicated above.

Besides magnegas, Santilli has identified a a number of additional magnecular species. Among them, we indicate he discovery of the new species of MagneHydrogen (with chemical symbol MH) which consists of hydrogen as pure a desired or technologically possible, yet the specific weight of MH can be a multiple of the specific weight of H2 [16].

FIGURE 3

Figure 3

A view of Santilli magnecule H3 = H-H×H which initiates the series of magnecules in magnehydrogen H4 = H-H×H-H, etc. [16-19].

The chemical composition ofSantilli magnehydrogen consists of clusters containing: individual hydrogen atoms H; hydrogen molecules H-H amd their magnecular counterparts H×H; and the new species H-H&times'H, H×H×H,H-H×H-H, etc. under magnecular bonds. The existence of Santilli magnehydrogen has been independently verified by D. Day [7], S. P. Zodape [18], Y. Yang, J. V. Kadeisvili, and S. Marton [19], and others.

It should be noted that the hydrogen content of MH is analytically measured by conventional gas chromatographers used at their maximal ionization energy, as a necessary condition to destroy all magnecular bonds and reduce the species to conventional molecular hydrogen H-H. The anomalous value of MH specific weight can only be scientifically established by its actual measurement via sensitive scales.

Santilli has shown that the new species of MH can be industrially produced by separating hydrogen from magnegas via the use of Pressure Swing Adsorption equipment (PSA) or other means of molecular separation, by therefore confirming the chemical novelty of magnegas [11,16]. Santilli has additionally shown that the new species of MH can be industrially produced by converting a conventional hydrogen gas into magnehydrogen via the PlasmaArcFlow technology [11].

The environmental significant of Santilli magnehydrogen is established beyond doubt by the fact that hydrogen is ideally suited for automotive usage since its commbustion exhaust is given by water vapor. However, hydrogen contains only 300 BTU per cubic feet. Consequently, the achievement of sufficient range in automotive usage would require the storage of about 15,000 cubic feet of hydrogen that can only be effectively achieved via cryogenic cooling close to absolute zero degree temperature. Due to the explosive transition of state from liquid to gas, the danger caused by possible malfunctions in cooling systems has prevented to date a large scale use of hydrogen for automotive usage.

By contrast, Santilli magnehydrogen has a BTU content which is a multiple that of hydrogen in a way proportional to the increase of the specific weight[16], with a consequential dramatic reduction of the volume of gas to be transported, and its consequential achievement of sufficient range in a compressed form [11], with evident environmental advantages. An additional environmental significance of magnehydrogen is that its large clusters and their magnetic character offer realistic possibilities of preventing the seepage through container walls, thus allowing the first known long term storage in a compressed form [11].

Additional chemical anomalies of magnegas are treated in the independent studies [20-26] and in lectures [27-29].

FIGURE 4a

Figure 4a

FIGURE 4b

Figure 4b

Printouts on the original detection of Santilli magnecules achieved on June 19, 1998, at the analytic laboratories of McClellan Air Force Basis near Sacramento, CA, via a GC-MS/IRD comprising a HP GC model 5890, and a HP MS model 5972 and a HP IRD model 5965. The test was conducted on a gas with magnecular structure produced by Santilli via an electric arc between graphite electrodes submerged within distilled water. According to quantum chemistry, the heaviest expected species was CO2 at 44 amu. For this reason, the analysts set the scan between 40 amu and 400 amu, the latter value being the instrument upper limit. The first plot shows the detection by the GC-MS of numerous unexpected clusters in the indicated amu range. The second plot obtained by the joint IRD in the same amu range shows the lack of appreciable signatures of said clusters, thus establishing that they cannot have a conventional covalence bond. The magnecular bond is derived from the origination of the species (Figure 1) and other data. Note that CO2 is detected in the IRD but not in the GC-MS, thus establishing that CO2 is a constituents of the magnecular clusters detected in the GC-MS [1,2].

DETECTION OF THE NEW SPECIES OF SANTILLI MAGNECULES.
Analytic chemists with long laboratory experience in detecting conventional molecules generally claim that the new chemical species of Santilli magnecules does not exist because it is not detected by currently available analytic means, such as Gas Chromatographers (GC) Mass Spectrometers (MS), InfraRed Detectors (IRD), and others. In so doing, said analytic chemists express judgment on the new species of magnecules without first acquiring the necessary technical knowledge and without proving that the anomalies of magnegas can be quantitatively represented with conventional molecules.

As clearly stated by Santilli in his works [1,3,7], the new chemical species of magnecules has been conceived and developed to be stable at ambient temperatures, but have a bond substantially weaker than the covalence bond as a necessary condition to achieve full combustion.

Current analytic detectors have been conceived and developed for the rapid and efficient detection of ordinary molecules and, therefore, operate with ionization energies and other settings fully acceptable for molecules without their disintegration. By contrast, the use of the same ionization energies and other settings decompose magnecular clusters due to their weak bond, destroy toroidal polarizations, and trigger the recombination of conventional molecules during the analytic detector itself.

In the absence of new detectors specifically conceived and developed for the weakly bonded species of magnecules, the best scientifically valid means for their detection is that identified by Santilli in his original memoir [1], namely, the use of GC-MS equipped with IRD (GC-MC/IRD). In this case, a given cluster can be tested via the GC-MS as well as via the IRD. A cluster well identified in the GC-MS can be claimed to be a magnecule in the event it possesses no IR signature at the atomic mass units (amu) of the cluster and "not" at the amu of its constituents, as often done in analytic chemistry.

Since we are dealing with large clusters in, at times with hundreds of amu, the absence of IR signature is clear experimental evidence of the lack of a covalence bond in favor of the magnecular bond, since it is well known that molecules with large values of amu cannot possibly achieve the perfect periodicity necessary to have no IR signature.

It should be stressed that the separate use of a GC-MS and an IRD is not scientifically valid due to the known impossibility of certain detections in the IRD of clusters detected in a separate GC-MS. Additionally, in order to achieve meaningful detections of magnecules, GC-MS/IRD must be operated under settings generally opposite those used for molecules, such as the lowest possible ionization energy, the lowest possible column temperature, the longest possible elusion time, and others (see the experimental paper [5] and its quoted references for technical details).

It should be finally indicated that laboratory bottle of magnegas can be readily obtained from Magnegas Corporation [10] for independent verification by interested chemists.


The signature available in the original nomination
has been withheld on the internet for
privacy.


FIGURE 5a

Figure 5a

FIGURE 5b

Figure 5b

FIGURE 5c

Figure 5c

Pictures of Santilli PlasmaArcFlow Reactors for the production of clean burning fuels with a magnecular structure that are manufactured and sold by the U. S. publicly traded company Magnegas Corporation [10].

FIGURE 6a

Figure 6a

FIGURE 6b

Figure 6b

FIGURE 6c

Figure 6c

Picture of a Ferrari 308 GTSi, running at Moroso International Race Track, Florida, with magnegas fuel produced by Santilli, and of a Chevrolet Cavalier used daily by Prof, Santilli with his own magnegas fuel. Both cars had no catalytic converters while meeting all federal exhaust requirement due to magnegas complete combustion.


REFERENCES

[1] R. M. Santilli, "Theoretical prediction and experimental verification of the new chemical species of magnecules," Hadronic J. 21, 789 (1998),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-43.pdf

[2] M.G. Kucherenko and A.K. Aringazin, "Estimate of the polarized magnetic moment of the isoelectronium in the hydrogen molecule" Hadronic J. 21, 895 (1998),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Kucherenko-1998.pdf

[3] R. M. Santilli, Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry, with Applications to New Clean Energies and Fuels, Kluwer Academic Publishers (2001),
http: //www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-113.pdf
Russian translation by A. K. Aringazin
http://i-b-r.org/docs/Santilli-Hadronic-Chemistry.pdf

[4] E. Trell, "Review of Santilli Hadronic Chemistry," International Journal Hydrogen Energy Vol. 28, p. 251 (2003),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Trell-review-HC.pdf

[5] V. M. Tangde, "Advances in hadronic chemistry and its applications," Foundation of Chemistry, DOI 10.1007/s10698-015-9218-z (March 24, 2015)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/hadronic-chemistry-FC.pdf

[6] M. O. Cloonan, "A new electronic theory of pericyclic chemistry and aromaticity is proposed: The Cplex-isoelectronic theory. Consistent with Santilli’s hadronic chemistry," Int. Journal Hydrogen Energy, 32, 159 (2007),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Cloonan-Paper1.pdf

[7] Y. Yang, J. V. Kadeisvili, and S. Marton, "Experimental Confirmations of the New Chemical Species of Santilli Magnecules," The Open Physical Chemistry Journal Vol. 5, 1-16 (2013)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Magnecules-2012.pdf

[8] A. K. Aringazin, "Toroidal configuration of the orbit of the electron of the hydrogen atom under strong external magnetic fields," Hadronic J. 24, 134 (2001),
http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/landau.pdf

[9] R. M. Santilli, U.S patents Numbers US6183604 B1, US6540966 B1, US6663752 B2, US6972118 B2, US20080014130 A1, US8236150 B2, US20140299463 A1, US20120033775 A1, from the website
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

[10] Website of the U. S. publicly traded company Magnegas Corporation,
http://magnegas.com/

[11] R. M. Santilli, The New Fuels with Magnecular Structure, International Academic Press (2008),
http://www.i-b-r.org/docs/Fuels-Magnecular-Structure.pdf
Italian translation by G. Bonfanti
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Carb-Strutt-Magnecolare.pdf

[12]. R. F. Frisch, "Chemical analysis of magnegas exhaust,"
http://thunder-energies.com/docs/MG-AAL-comnustion-analyses.pdf

[13] R. R. Alfano, "CCNY Certification of Magnegas Flame Temperature," Summary,
http://thunder-energies.com/docs/Magnegas-flame%20temperature.pdf

[14] R. R. Alfano, "CCNY Certification of Magnegas Flame Temperature," Report
http://thunder-energies.com/docs/MG-Flame-report.pdf

[15] N. Kapustka, "EMV Evaluation of Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Gases,"
http://thunder-energies.com/docs/MG-metal-cutting.pdf

[16] R. M. Santilli, "The novel magnecular species of hydrogen and oxygen with increased specific weight and energy content," Intern. J. Hydrogen Energy 28, 177-196 (2003),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-38.pdf

[17] Day D. TCD analysis and density measurements of Santilli Magnehydrogen. Eprida Laboratory report dated 11/10/11. http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Eprida-MH-Certification-10-11.pdf

[18] S. P. Zodape, "The MagneHydrogen in Hadronic Chemistry," This work is being presented at ICNAAM 2013 being held at Rhodes, Greece during or. AIP Proceedings 1558, 648 (2013); doi: 10.1063/1.4825575
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/sangesh-Greece.pdf

[19] Y. Yang, J. V. Kadeisvili, and S. Marton, "Experimental Confirmations of the New Chemical Species of Santilli MagneHydrogen," International Journal Hydrogen Energy Vol. 38, page 5002 (2013)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/MagneHydrogen-2012.pdf

[20] C. P. Pandhurnekar, "Advances on Alternative Fuels with Santilli Magnecular Structure," International Journal of Alternative Fuels, ISSN: 2051-5987, Vol.17, 2015
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Magnegas-2015.pdf

[21] S. P. Zodape, "Novel Chemical Species of Santilli's Magnegas," AIP Conference Proceedings 1648, 510022 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4912727
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/1.4912727(SP-Zodape).pdf

[22] S. S. Wazalwar, V. M. Tangde and A. A. Bhaleka, "Study of Combustion of Coal with Magnegas as Additive for Improved Combustion Efficiency: A Review of Present Scenario and Future Scope," AIP Conference Proceedings 1648, 510021 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4912726
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/1.4912726(Wazalwar-Tangde-Bhalekar).pdf

[23] Sangesh P. Zodape, "Novel Chemical Species of Santilli's Magnegas in Hadronic Chemistry," AIP Conference Proceedings 1648, 510022 (2015); doi: 10.1063/1.4912727
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/1.4912727(SP-Zodape).pdf

[24] V. M. Tangde and S. S. Wazalwar, "Magnegas - An Alternative Technology for Clean Third Special Issue: Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry dedicated to the 80th birthday of Prof. R. M. Santilli, American Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2016)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/FinalEdition_122015004_20150826.pdf

[25] C. P. Pandhurneka and Sangesh P. Zodape, "SantilliÕs Magnecules and Their Applications," Third Special Issue: Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry dedicated to the 80th birthday of Prof. R. M. Santilli, American Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2016)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/FinalEdition_122015003_20150818.pdf

[26] S. S. Wazalwar and V. M. Tangde, "Magnecular Cleaning Coal Combustion Via MagneGas Additive," Third Special Issue: Foundations of Hadronic Chemistry dedicated to the 80th birthday of Prof. R. M. Santilli, American Journal of Modern Physics, in press (2016)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/FinalEdition_122015002_20150818.pdf

[27] V. M. Tandge, "An introduction to hadronic chemistry," lecture delivered at the 2002 international Workshop on Hadronic Chemistry, Kos, Greece,
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/san-marino-2012-an-introduction-to-hadronic-chemistry

[28] R. M. santilli, An Introduction to Hadronic Chemistry, Invited Lecture delivered at the Institute for UltraFast Spectroscopy and Laser City College of New York on October 19, 2012
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/lecture-iv-a

[29] R. M. Santilli, An Introduction to Hadronic Chemistry, Keynote speech at the International Workshop on Hadronic Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics October 21 to 26, 2013, India Department of Chemistry Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/santilli-india-2013